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|Título:||Landmines of democracy: civil society and the legacy of authoritarian rules in Angola|
|Editora:||Media Institute of Southern Africa (MISA)|
|Resumo:||Angola has largely been under authoritarian rule from the colonial era to the present. The nationalist war against the Portuguese (1961-1975) promised freedom, but independence in 1975 marked the beginning of a civil war with major foreign involvement right from the start. With few interruptions, the war lasted for almost 27 years - to February 2002, when the rebel leader of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), Jonas Savimbi, was killed in action. From 1975 to 1977, there was a period of relative freedom in Angola. However, in 1977 an aborted coup resulted in a major purge with massive killings all over the country. An authoritarian and repressive one-party socialist regime was put in place by the People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA). A feared apparatus of State security was placed in charge of political repression. Non-state media were closed and the right to association was limited to mass organisations of the MPLA. The judicial system became 'militarised', juxtaposing civilian and military courts with the ability to impose heavy penalties, including the death penalty (mainly for political and security crimes). The judiciary was politically dependent and operated under the direct influence of the party and ultimately of the President. A culture of fear, intimidation and repression became entrenched. The regime in place and the priority given to defence and internal security did not allow any room for civil society to emerge and impeded the development of any kind of 'democratic institutions' or any sense of transparency and accountability . Violations of human rights by both sides of the conflict became regular as well as impunity for perpetrators of these crimes.|
|Aparece nas colecções:||Direito e Ciência Política - Capítulos/artigos em livros internacionais / Book chapters/papers in international books|
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|Vidal_Nuno_AngolaLandminesOfDemocracy.pdf||27,55 MB||Adobe PDF||Ver/Abrir Acesso Restrito. Solicitar cópia ao autor!|
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