Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.2/1568
Título: Menopausa em (re)vista : os discursos praticados pela Revista Maria em torno da menopausa (1978-1988)
Autor: Anjo, Marília Regina de Azevedo Sousa
Orientador: Magalhães, Maria José
Palavras-chave: Mulheres
Saúde
Corpo humano
Menopausa
Meios de comunicação social
Imprensa
Representações sociais
Estereótipo
Envelhecimento
Sexualidade
Maternidade
Menopause
Feminine wish
Aging
Beauty
Psychoses
Sexuality
Stereotypes
Femininity
Motherhood
Data de Defesa: 2010
Resumo: A construção social da menopausa através dos media, problemática desta dissertação, centra-se na análise do discurso de artigos da Revista Maria acerca da menopausa, no período compreendido entre 1978 e 1988. Ancoradas metodologicamente numa epistemologia feminista, analisamos 32 artigos, seleccionados por conterem a palavra pré, peri (e/ou climatério), e pós-menopausa de forma explícita, inserida(s) em qualquer parte do texto, mesmo que uma única vez, consubstanciada pela opção teórico-metodológica da análise crítica do discurso (Fairclough, 2004; Nogueira, 2001). O enquadramento teórico cruza vários conceitos de menopausa, sexualidade/feminilidade e representações dos media. Neste sentido, discorremos sobre a sexualidade como dimensão bio-psico-social (Pacheco, 2000; Bee, 1997), onde a construção da feminilidade centrada no mito da beleza (Wolf, 1994) e na produtividade biológica (Laznik, 2004), interfere na estrutura da relação feminino/sexualidade. Mais ainda, é a presença de um discurso médico normalizador para as mulheres e menopausa (Barbre, 2003) que reforça os estereótipos da feminilidade, complexificando o processo de exclusão versus aceitação do processo de envelhecimento natural e activo de qualquer ser humano (Bee, 1997; OMS, 1996). A esta construção social não está alheio o papel dos media que, como agentes socializadores e de divulgação em massa, reforçam os estereótipos e preconceitos e pouco divulgam acerca da construção da mulher como sujeitos activos no trabalho, na política e na sociedade (Silveirinha, 2009; 2006), e que se evidenciou na investigação desenvolvida. Os campos/padrões discursivos emergentes neste estudo centram-se em: o desafio ao tabu menopausa, por não ser inicialmente abordado pela revista Maria, mas que a busca de informação encetada pelas leitoras espoletou; a verdade científica e o discurso médico como credibilizadores das informações fornecidas e a construção social como problema de saúde e da mulher-eterna-sofredora-psicótica; o discurso normalizador e hegemónico baseado no determinismo biológico como castrador da feminilidade, do prazer e da sexualidade; a sexualidade feminina subserviente, de expressão unicamente heterossexual, e o homem como entidade fulcral para minimizar os males femininos e de valorização dos "olhares masculinos" ao "apreciar" a mulher; o discurso emancipatório que, quando surge, nunca o é na totalidade, mostrando uma dupla face discursiva que nos remete para a ambiguidade da representação social em torno da menopausa. O balanço final denuncia um discurso pendente, de sobremaneira, para o pólo das perdas, ou seja, a mulher, na menopausa, perde beleza, perde juventude, perde a capacidade de procriação, perde saúde, perde desejo sexual, perde capacidade cognitiva. E quando ganha, ganha mais doenças, ganha mais peso, ganha rugas, ganha mais solidão. Perdas e ganhos são perspectivados como o copo meio-vazio, e nunca como o copo meio-cheio. Esta perspectiva de multi-desvalorização social da mulher permitiu-nos chegar ao que consideramos ser a existência de uma "menofobia" social.The social construction of the menopause through media, is the subject of this dissertation, focused in the discourse analysis of news, from the magazine Maria, about the menopause, in the period understood between 1978 and 1988. Based on a feminist epistemology, 32 articles were analysed, selected because they referred to the pre, peri (and / or climacteric) and post menopause anywhere in the article, even when it happened only once, substantiated by the option theory and method of critical discourse analysis (Fairclough, 2004; Nogueira, 2001). The theoretical framework crosses various concepts of menopause, sexuality/ femininity and representations of the media. In this sense, we talk about sexuality as the bio-psycho-social (Pacheco, 2000; Bee, 1997), where the construction of femininity centered on the beauty myth (Wolf, 1994) and biological productivity (Laznik, 2004), interferes with the structure of the female relationship / sexuality. Furthermore, it is the presence of a standardized medical discourse on women and menopause (Barbre, 2003) that reinforces stereotypes of femininity, complexifying the process of exclusion versus acceptance of the natural aging process and asset of any human being (Bee, 1997; WHO, 1996). The social construction is not unconnected with the role of the media, as socializing agents and the mass distribution, reinforce stereotypes and prejudice and disclose little about the construction of women as active in labor, politics and society (Silveirinha, 2009; 2006), and that was evident in the research developed. The discursive patterns that emerge in this study focus on: the challenge of taboo menopause, not initially addressed in the magazine Maria, but aroused by the search for information of readers; scientific truth and medical discourse gave credit to the information provided by social construction of a health problem and the vision of woman as an eternal psychotic sufferer; the normalized and hegemonic discourse based on the biological determinism as castrating of femininity, pleasure and sexuality, subservient female sexuality, heterosexual expression and of man as the central entity to minimize women‘s burden and the exploitation of "a male gaze" to "enjoy" woman; the emancipatory discourse, when it appears, is never complete, shows a double-sided discourse that leads to ambiguity of social representation of menopause. The final balance denounces a practised discourse that tends, excessively, to loss, meaning, woman, in the menopause period, loses beauty, loses youth, loses procreative capacity, loses health, loses sexual desire, loses cognitive capacity. And, when she wins, wins more diseases, wins more weight, wins wrinkles, wins more solitude. Losses and victories are put in the perspective of the half-empty glass and never of the half-full glass. These social multi-devaluated perspectives of women allow us to reach what we consider to be a social "menophobia".
The social construction of the menopause through media, is the subject of this dissertation, focused in the discourse analysis of news, from the magazine Maria, about the menopause, in the period understood between 1978 and 1988. Based on a feminist epistemology, 32 articles were analysed, selected because they referred to the pre, peri (and / or climacteric) and post menopause anywhere in the article, even when it happened only once, substantiated by the option theory and method of critical discourse analysis (Fairclough, 2004; Nogueira, 2001). The theoretical framework crosses various concepts of menopause, sexuality/ femininity and representations of the media. In this sense, we talk about sexuality as the bio-psycho-social (Pacheco, 2000; Bee, 1997), where the construction of femininity centered on the beauty myth (Wolf, 1994) and biological productivity (Laznik, 2004), interferes with the structure of the female relationship / sexuality. Furthermore, it is the presence of a standardized medical discourse on women and menopause (Barbre, 2003) that reinforces stereotypes of femininity, complexifying the process of exclusion versus acceptance of the natural aging process and asset of any human being (Bee, 1997; WHO, 1996). The social construction is not unconnected with the role of the media, as socializing agents and the mass distribution, reinforce stereotypes and prejudice and disclose little about the construction of women as active in labor, politics and society (Silveirinha, 2009; 2006), and that was evident in the research developed. The discursive patterns that emerge in this study focus on: the challenge of taboo menopause, not initially addressed in the magazine Maria, but aroused by the search for information of readers; scientific truth and medical discourse gave credit to the information provided by social construction of a health problem and the vision of woman as an eternal psychotic sufferer; the normalized and hegemonic discourse based on the biological determinism as castrating of femininity, pleasure and sexuality, subservient female sexuality, heterosexual expression and of man as the central entity to minimize women‘s burden and the exploitation of 'a male gaze' to 'enjoy' woman; the emancipatory discourse, when it appears, is never complete, shows a double-sided discourse that leads to ambiguity of social representation of menopause. The final balance denounces a practised discourse that tends, excessively, to loss, meaning, woman, in the menopause period, loses beauty, loses youth, loses procreative capacity, loses health, loses sexual desire, loses cognitive capacity. And, when she wins, wins more diseases, wins more weight, wins wrinkles, wins more solitude. Losses and victories are put in the perspective of the half-empty glass and never of the half-full glass. These social multi-devaluated perspectives of women allow us to reach what we consider to be a social ―menophobia‖
La construction sociale de la ménopause par le medias, problématique de cette thèse, porte sur l'analyse du discours des articles du magazine Maria, compris entre la période : 1978 et 1988. Sur une méthodologie, ancrée dans une épistémologie féministe, nous avont examiné 32 articles, qui ont été sélectionnés parce qu‘ils contenaient les mots le pré, péri (et/ou climatère) et post-ménopause explicitement, dans une des parties de l'article, même si une seule fois, étayée par la théorie option et la méthode d'analyse critique du discours (Fairclough, 2004; Nogueira, 2001). Le cadre théorique qui traverse les différents concepts de la ménopause, la sexualité / féminité et les représentations des médias. En ce sens, on parle de sexualité comme la bio-psycho-sociale (Pacheco, 2000; Bee, 1997), où la construction de la féminité, centrée sur le mythe de la beauté (Wolf, 1994) et la productivité biologique (Laznik, 2004), interfere sur la structure de la relation Homme / sexualité. De plus c‘est la présence d'un discours médical standardisé sur les femmes et la ménopause (Barbre, 2003) qui renforce les stéréotypes de la féminité, complexifiant le processus d'exclusion par rapport à l'acceptation du processus naturel de vieillissement et de l'actif de tout être humain (Bee, 1997 , OMS, 1996). La construction sociale n'est pas sans rapport avec le rôle des médias, comme agents de socialisation et de la distribution de masse, le renforcement des stéréotypes et des préjugés et révélent peu de choses sur la construction de la femme comme étant actif dans le travail, la politique et la société (Silveirinha, 2009 , 2006), et cela s'est ressenti dans la recherche développée. Les modèles discursifs qui apparaissent dans cette étude met en exergue: le défi du tabou de la ménopause, n‘est pas traités initialement par le magazine Maria, mais la recherche d'informations initiée par des lecteurs, la vérité scientifique et médicale et de comptabilisation des informations fournies et la construction sociale et un problème de santé et de la femme, qui souffraient de psychose éternelle, le normalisateur et le discours hégémonique basé sur le déterminisme biologique comme castratrice de la féminité, le plaisir et la sexualité, la sexualité féminine subordonnée, d'expression, et l‘ homme hétérosexuel comme entité centrale afin de minimiser le fardeau des femmes et l'exploitation du «regard masculin» à «contempler de« la femme, le discours émancipateur qui lorsqu'il apparaît, jamais en totalité, montrant un discours à double face qui nous amène à l'ambiguïté de la représentation sociale autour de la ménopause. Le bilan de cette étude dénonce le discours pratiqué bloqué, en particulier, pour le pôle des pertes, c'est-à-dire, lors de la menopause, la femme, pert sa beauté, pert sa juvénilité, pert sa capacité de procréation, pert sa santé, pert son plaisir sexuel, pert sa capacité cognitive. Et quand elle gagne, elle gagne plus de maladies, gagne problèmes de santé, gagne de poids. Les pertes et les gains sont comme la perspective d‘un verre à demi-plein, et jamais comme un verre demi-vide. Cette perspective social dévalorisante émerge dans cette perspective de multi- minimum social de la femme.
Descrição: Dissertação de Mestrado em Estudo sobre as Mulheres apresentada à Universidade Aberta
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.2/1568
Aparece nas colecções:Mestrado em Estudos Sobre as Mulheres / Master's Degree in Women Studies - TMEMU

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